(a) No time to see, in broad daylight,
In the bony arms
Of Reality and be comforted.
Star shine, moon glow
You're all that I can call my own.
(i) Occurrence: Lines 7-8/14
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet laments that modern man has drowned so much in the ocean of temporal charms that he has no time to see and enjoy the Nature like trees, animals, streams and Beauty. He concludes that such a sorrowful life is a poor life.
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In these lines the poetess expresses her inability to find any human being whom she can trust and call her own except Nature. She cannot call her husband own because she has always found him full of threats of separation or divorce. She cannot call her children own because they either do no obey her fully or show their inclination towards their father. Thus she has got tired of human beings. However, she can call objects and phenomena of Nature like mountains, oceans, leaves, stones, star shine and moon glow etc her own because
You may not find it very good to be one.
In triumphs people have dropped down dead.
Long after it was heard no more.
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And all the men and women merely players.
In the future years be found with those who try
To labour for the good until they die.
(b) A legacy of benefits ---------- until they die.
(i) Occurrence: Lines 25-27/36
(c) In the morning ---------- beneath the tree.
Singing of Mount Abora.
They have no politicians and sang at their ease.
If you were not afraid, you would kill him!
(a) And on her dulcimer ---------- Mount Abora
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(c) There ain't no --------- or the Palace."
Question No. 6
(a) What is the role of Nick Adams in "The Killers"?
(b) "I would rather have been loved, not feared" says Beatrice before dying in "Rappaccini's Daughter". Elaborate.
(c) Describe the quarrel between Ustad Mangu and the Gora Soldier. (The New Constitution)
Firstly, he is a little dude of about eighteen or nineteen who works at Henry's Lunch-Room with George and Sam in Summit. His age becomes evident when Al and Max mock his masculinity by calling him a "bright boy". Moreover, when Sam says, "Little boys always know what to do", his teenage gets proved.
Secondly, he is a responsible citizen. After the departure of Al and Max, he goes to Hirsch's Boarding House. There he warns Ole Anderson of the impending danger to Ole's life from Al and Max. He also offers him his help by saying, "Don't you want me to go and see the police"?
Thirdly, he is a peace-loving person. He recognizes the horror of evil and attempts to do something about it, but when he cannot, he decides to run away from the area of gangsters. Thus when he comes back Henry's Lunch-Room, he says to George, "I'm going to get out of this town".
Firstly, she is a lonely maiden. Her life is confined to her house and garden. He "sister-plant" cannot requite her love. Thus, to keep her emotionally sound and psychologically balanced, she wishes to love of society.
Secondly, her soul is pristine. Although her sinister father has impregnated her body with poison, her soul remains pure. Her evil power is merely a superficial disguise. Hence she says, "Giovanni, believe it, though my body be fed with poison, my spirit is God's creature, and needs love as its daily food."
Thirdly, her heart and mind is grief-stricken. All the three characters make her life miserable. Baglioni causes hatred in the heart of Giovanni for Beatrice. Rappaccini uses her as a guinea pig. Giovanni accuses her of his being poisonous and even calls her "terrible" In this dilemma, she only needs love, love and love.
(c) Quarrel Between Ustad Mangu
He went to the cantonment. There he saw the Gora soldier who had abused him the year before in the drunken state. He was waiting for a conveyance. Mangu drove towards him. The Gora soldier wanted to be carried to the dancing girls' bazaar. To recover the amount spent on the new plume of his horse, Mangu demanded five rupees for the service.
The demand of five rupees caused a violent bickering between the two. The Gora soldier hit Mangu with his stick. Mangu's thigh was injured. He flew into exasperation. He thought that the new constitution was in force. So under the illusion of equal rights, he hit a blow under the chin of the soldier. Many blows followed. He gave the soldier a sound beating.
In desperation, the soldier began to shout for help. Soon a crowd gathered there. Police also appeared on the scene. Mangu was apprehended. He shouted, "New constitution!" "New constitution!" But he was told that there was no new constitution. At last, the common Indian was put behind the bars and it got proved that the British were still in rule.
QUESTION NO. 7
(a) Why does Eve turn down every offer of Rosen in "Take Pity"?
(b) How does the Swallow sacrifice his life for the love of the Happy Prince?
(c) Describe the effect of romantic love on the adolescent mind of the Small Boy. (Araby)
Firstly, Eva wants to lead an independent life. She thinks that nobody will marry a poor widow with two daughters. Even Rosen is ready for marriage but she refuses. She fears that the sick Rosen will soon leave her in the lurch like that of her sick husband. Thus she says, "I had enough with sick men".
Secondly, she is a paragon of self-respect. She has a firm belief in her own integrity. Rosen's pity, charity, love and marriage proposal all hurt her self-respect. She prefers starvation and loneliness to disgrace of her self-respect. Hence she plainly says no to each and every offer of help by Rosen.
Thirdly, she has a great love for her late husband. She still calls hem "My Alex". She does not want to let his name down. In the end it seems that she goes to Rosen's window to surrender. But it is just the hallucination of Rosen as he wants to see her breaking down before him. But Eva never breaks down.
The Swallow is migrating to Egypt where he is awaited by his friends. However, on the request of the statue, he procrastinates his journey three times. On the first night he stops to help a seamstress and his ill son with the ruby from the statue's sword-hilt. On the second night he delays his trip to help a starving playwright with one of the sapphire eye of the statue. On the third night he stays to succor a destitute match-girl with the other sapphire eye of the statue.
When the statue becomes blind of both eyes, the Swallow decides to live with him forever, He flies over the city and narrates the sufferings and miseries of the people to the statue. One by one he plucks the gold leaves that cover the body of the statue and distributes them among the indigent of the city. In the meantime, snow is followed by frost. The Swallow grows colder and colder. In his moribundity, he flies to the statue's shoulder, kisses him on the lips and falls down dead at his feet.
Firstly, love makes the boy highly imaginative. He is always obsessed in the sweet thoughts of his sweet-heart. He always keeps her with him in his imagination. At day in the class-room and at night in the bed-room, he envisages her beautiful "brown figure" between him and the page of book he strives to read.
Secondly, love converts him into a parasitical follower. He wants to hang around his beloved all the time. Every morning, he lies on the floor of his front room and anxiously waits for his beloved to come our of her house for school. As soon as she comes at her doorstep, he quickly takes his books and follows her to that point where their ways diverge.
Thirdly, love makes him a sentimental fool. He promises his darling to procure a souvenir for her from "Araby". Being late, his aunt advised him to postpone his trip. His uncle gives him a little money. However, love compels him to visit "Araby". With a little money in the almost closed bazaar, he confronts with epiphany and returns home empty handed.
(a) How does E.A. Poe build an atmosphere of horror in "Tell-Tale Heart"?
(b) "The Necklace" is a satire on the vanity of women. Discuss.
(c) How does the story "The Duchess and the Jeweler" reflect the moral decadence of the English aristocracy?
Firstly, the motive of the murder creates horror. The narrator wants to eliminate a harmless and offenceless old man simply because of his physical deformity. One of the eyes of the old man is abnormal. The narrator labels it a "vulture eye". The eye chills him to the backbone. The revulsion exceeds to such an extent that he decides to kill the old man, perhaps his master.
Secondly, the process of killing generates horror. For seven nights, the narrator goes to kill the old man. The eye being closed, he takes no action. However, on the eighth night, the old man wakes at a certain noise. After gloating over his victim's fear an hour, the protagonist lets out a ray of light at the "evil eye". The sight infuriates him. He pounces upon the old man and smothers him under bed.
Thirdly, the corpse of the old man fills us with shuddering horror. We feel near nausea when the merciless killer hacks the corpse into pieces to conceal it under the wooden planks of the floor. The horror gets intensified manifold when the conscience of the killer begins to hear the relentless throbbing of the dead man's heart getting louder and louder each moment.
Firstly, women's dissatisfaction with life has been satirized. Vanity is, in fact, the quality of being vain and valueless. Matilda is not satisfied with her poor husband, humble house and other modest belongings. The absence of expensive stuff in her life makes fer feel worthless and futile. The writer condemns this vain and pessimistic attitude of life.
Secondly, women's excessive pride in their physical beauty has be criticized. Matilda is very proud of her physical beauty. To become a beauty queen at a ball, she procures a costly frock and barrows a diamond necklace which are symbols of her vanity. The writer manifests that vanity has a fall. The necklace is lost and Matilda has to pay a heavy price for it.
Thirdly, women's egoism to hide the truth has been ridiculed. It is the egoism of Forestier that she does not tell Matilda that the necklace is fake. Similarly, Matilda does not tell Forestier that the necklace has been lost. Thus both women have fear of being original and this attitude is intimately connected to vanity or vainglory.
Oliver Bacon is a representative of naoveau aristocracy. His character amply reveals the moral decadence of the contemporary upper class. He is a very greedy man. Even though he has become the richest jeweler in England, yet he is not satisfied. Moreover, he is a philanderer. He has deceived Mademoiselle who used to stick roses in his button hole. Now he buys fake pearls from the Duchess in exchange of passing a weekend with her daughter Diana, his new beloved.
On the other hand, the Duchess represents inherited aristocracy. Her character also highlights the lax ethics of the nobility of that time. She is a thief. In order to get money for gambling, she steal the pearls of her husband. She has no respect for her husband. She calls him villain, sharper and bad'un. She is so bankrupt morally that she stakes the honour of her daughter for money. She offers her daughter Diana for amour to Oliver Bacon in her own house.
(a) The Wife in "The Shadow in the Rose Garden" cannot help digging her past. Discuss.
(b) Describe the love between the French Soldier and the Panther.
(c) How is Lisby different from her elder sister?
Firstly, the Wife is childless. She married Frank three years ago. Since then she has been living with him in Bridlington under the same roof. However, she has not given birth to a baby. It means she has not compromised with her present. She has not developed conjugality with her husband. In other words, she still loves her past.
Secondly, when the husband arranges for an outing, the Wife deliberately selects a sea-side village to revive her yore. Here there is her sweet memorial place, a rose garden. She visits this garden alone. This lush, enchanted garden, filled with red, pink and white roses reminds her of the time spent there with Archie, her erstwhile lover.
Thirdly, her discharging of repressed emotions shows her love for past. In the garden, she encounters Archie. Watching him alive but mad perturbs her greatly. Her mind is so full of the memories of past that it refuses to hide the present shock. Thus after coming back the garden, she blurts out a confession of her affair with Archie to her husband.
Firstly, the play has exaggerative characters. They are alazons. They inflate themselves to be more than they actually are. Smirnov exposes himself a misogynist. However, the way he exploits flattery to win Popova's love makes us giggle. Popova claims that she is inconsolably bereaved but her powdered face and passionate embrace with Smirnov give us a hearty cachinnation.
Secondly, the play is pregnant with ludicrous situations. Popova's refusal to pay back Smirnov the loan, Popova's accepting Smirnov's challenge to fight a duel with pistol and Smirnov's teaching Popova how to fire a pistol are the most ludicrous and ridiculous situations in the play. These situations breed a great hee-haw and guffaw.
Thirdly, the plot of the play is improbable. It is full of suspense but the suspense, curiously enough, is titillating, rather than grim. The twist at the end of the plot is quite humorous. In masquerades the expected tragedy into comedy. Thus the end, obviously makes the readers or the spectators laugh a great deal. Ha! Ha! Ha! ............!
The first conflict starts at breakfast on the issue of punctuality. Philip has just repatriated from a nerve-shattering war. So he is in a mood of holiday. He wakes up late in the morning. He demands his breakfast at 10 o'clock. Uncle James does not approve his unpunctuality. He has made a strict rule in his house to have breakfast at 8 o'clock sharp.
The second conflict takes place in a dream on the matter of decorums. While waiting for Philip in the morning room, Uncle James naps in front of the fire. He dreams that Philip has a cigar in his hand. He lights it and starts puffing in front of his uncle without any permission. Uncle James does not like it at all.
The third conflict is seen in the dream on the concern of Philip's employment. Philip wants to be an architect while his uncle tries to push him into his jam business. A showdown starts between the two. James exploits the power of money and Philip uses the power of revolver. Philip wins. However, when James wakes up, Philip is ready to join the jam business.
Firstly, she has decided to marry the ugly man because he is a very amorous and loving person at heart. He makes her feel all funny inside. He hits her where she matters. His love has made her blind to his physical ugliness. And love between a man and a woman is an insanity that is only cured by marriage.
Secondly, she has proposed to marry the unattractive man because he is well-established financially. He is an international player of a very earning game, the rugby football. Moreover, he is one of the most successful advertising agents in London. Thus she will have no financial problems after marriage. She will roll in money.
Thirdly, she wants to marry the hideous man because he is very secure. Since he is ugly, he is not a lady-killer. She will have not worries regarding his running after other women or other women running after him. In other words, he will remain a monogamous husband. He will not desert her the way her charming father has deserted her mother.
(b) What is the significance of the conclusion that "the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded"?
(c) "Whistling of Birds" shows its writer's love for nature. Elaborate.
Demographically, the Muslims were a minority as compared with the Hindus. Religiously, the Muslims were monotheists while the Hindus were polytheists. Socially, the Muslims believed in the equality of all men whereas the Hindus adhered to a caste system. Economically, the Muslims advocated private ownership and the Hindus attached weight to the concentration of wealth. Thus the Muslims and the Hindus were different in everything and must need different territories. Their co-existence was incongruous. Moreover, the sub-continent was vast enough for two large countries.
The demand of the Muslims for divorce was very genuine and reasonable as it was in the interest of both the Muslims and the Hindus. It was also in the interest of the world peace. The bogus peace enforced by the British would have ended after the departure of the British from the sub-continent. In short, a separate homeland was inevitable for the Muslims to live peacefully and according to their own political, religious, social and economical life style.
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(b) Significance of the Conclusion
Firstly, the conclusion signifies the importance of the sun for the world. After the eclipse, the light is restored in the sun. This light transforms the entire structure of human civilization into its original shape and splendor. Once again, the world becomes bright, colourful and popolous. The farmhouses, the villages and railway lines become the centre of activity. Thus the sun is the flesh and blood of this world.
Secondly, the conclusion strengthens our trust in Allah Almighty. An eclipse is a natural phenomenon. It warns that man's place on this earth is very precarious. All the advancements in knowledge and science cannot overcome this helplessness of man. However, the return of light in the sun gives us a message of hope and substantiates our faith in Allah Almighty Who is controlling all the processes of the universe.
Thirdly, the conclusion implies that losing something makes us realize the importance of that thing. The sun is lost for twenty-four seconds during this eclipse. However, when it is revived we realize that nothing is more important to us than the sun.
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(c) Writer's Love for Nature
Firstly, his faithful description of objects of nature shows his strong affinity with nature. The presence of lambs, turtles and doves etc, in this essay, symbolizes his love for animals whereas daphne, crocus and celandine denote his love for plants. Both animals and plants are the living objects of nature and the writer is a lover of them.
Secondly, his beautiful presentation of the spectacular phenomena of nature demonstrates his love for nature. He describes frost, wind, sunset and twilight as a lover describes the features of his beloved. He has presented these divine acts to portray two other great natural phenomena; winter and spring. However, the writer's love for nature is the greatest natural phenomena.
Thirdly, the writer's love for nature has recognized nature's merciless potential. That is why he has given the dismal details of lacerated cadavers of lapwings, starlings, thrushes, red-wings and numerous other creatures. In short, the writer is an avid lover of nature's duality.
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QUESTION NO. 12
(a) Experience of Parachute Jumping
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"The Beauty Industry"
keeping people in health
(a) Difference Between Hosts and Guests
Firstly, the writer tells the general difference between these two classes. A person gets the label of a host if he invites someone to dine with him at a restaurant, orders the meal and bears the expenses. On the other hand a person gets the label of a guest if he accepts the invitation with delight, praises the food while eating, does not pay the bill and feels a pleasant sensation of not paying for it.
Secondly, the writer gives the temperamental dissimilarity between these two groups. Every human being is either a host or a guest by instinct. He is a born-host or a born-guest. His instinct dominates his personality. A person is a host if he possesses an active or positive instinct to offer hospitality. On the other hand a person is a guest if he has a passive or negative instinct to accept the hopitality.
Thirdly, there are circumstantial differences between hosts and guests. Circumstances react on the character. Conventionally, the rich give and the poor receive. Riches often nurture the instincts of a host and poverty usually fosters the instincts of a guest. The rich and the poor is an undisputed division, however, the rich as hosts and the poor as guests is a poor one. Some poor persons also love to entertain others.
When a bachelor looks into a mirror, he has an altogether different idea about himself. The mirror gives him the reflection of a healthy young man with a lot of time, chance, and money; who can eat, drink, and roam at will. He feels himself free without a wife or children to look after. But same mirror sometimes gives him some displeasing aspects as well. He feels himself alone and unwanted by society.
There are two major types of bachelors. There is one who is handsome, charming and always in search of new girls and even getting them. The other is a bit mediocre, always considering himself a hero in dreams. He has intimacy with pretty girls only in imagination, but a failure in real life. He always tosses in bed but sometimes fortunate enough to get a meeker like him as a partner. But the problem with both of them is that they are not satisfied with themselves. They always need true love but seldom get and always get what they do not want.
In short, these are some common problems faced by an American bachelor as expressed in this essay.
Firstly, it is easy to see fanaticism in others and difficult to spot in oneself because people lack tolerance. Tolerance is a dull virtue so it is almost missing in all spheres of life -- in the queue, in the street, in the railway station, in the office, at the factory, at the telephone and above all among classes, races and nations. Absense of tolerance and compromise makes people narrow-minded and fanatic.
Secondly, people are egocentric. They consider tolerance a weakness or surrender. These people are responsible for the colour questions and racial prejudices. They produce hatred among people and disturb the peace of society. They do not understand that putting up with people does not mean yielding to them. It only means to be broad-minded, libral, calm and patient.
Thirdly, people are self-confirmig and findfaulters. They consider their thinking, beliefs and creeds correct, truthful and the highest of all. They do not respect the ideas of others. For example, the Englishmen ususlly accuse the Nazis of being intolerant to the Jews. But are they not equally guilty of being prejudicial to the Black? Thus the writer rightly says, "It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in oneself".
(a) What is personification? Explain personification in "Leisure".
(b) What in your opinion is the most fanciful image in "Tartary"?
(c) What are the new year resolutions of Elizabeth Sewell?
(a) Personification in "Leisure"
Secondly, Beauty is blessed with eyes. These are the optical organs of her figure which have attraction and perception. With these sensual organs, she not only detects light but also smile from her milieu. Ironically, modern man has grown blind to his surroundings.
Thirdly, Beauty possesses lips. These are the expressive organs of her physique which gain smile from the eyes. Although the smile takes no time to reach the lips yet modern man is so busy in his worldly pursuits that he cannot wait for the arrival of smile on the beautiful face of Beauty.
I'd don my robe and scimitar,
And zebras seven should draw my car
Through Tartary's dark glades."
QUESTION NO. 17
(c) The Art of Losing
Firstly, oldsters become weak and feeble like that of infants. Both lack physical and mental energies. They cannot walk at ease. They cannot talk clearly and audibly. Their immune system is very poor. They cannot think about their lives wisely. Thus Shakespeare rightly calls old age 'a second childishness'.
Secondly, old people are helpless like that of children. It is a common experience of life that aged people are dependent on others in the same way as kids are dependent on others. Both cannot earn their bred and butter, and a caretaker is necessary for them. This similarity again proves that man is 'once a man and twice a child'.
Thirdly, decrepit people become victims of amnesia. They become forgetful like that of children. Both lack retention. They are unable to concentrate on anything. They often forget persons, places and things. The memory of a grandparent corresponds the memory of a grand child. Thus senile dementia is a return to infancy.
Firstly, the poison tree of William Blake stands for the tree in Paradise. But this analogy is not suitable. Adam and Eve did not die after eating the apple from this tree but the poet's enemy dies. Moreover, God does not rejoice in killing His enemies like that of the poet.
Secondly, the poison tree is a physical manifestation of poet's anger, growing in his mind for his enemy. But how does the enemy get into the poet's mind without the poet's knowing? How does poisonous thoughts kill the enemy? Only its shows the inappropriateness of the title.
However, if the foe represents the poet's mental disharmony and the poison tree his wrath, then the title matches the content of the poem. In the end the poet is happy because his wrath has killed the demons in his mind, and his mind is at peace now. In short, diamond has cut diamond.
The first quatrain describes his fear of not getting fame as a poet. He worries that his premature death will leave his poetry in parenthesis. Though he has a "teeming brain", full of ideas, images and thoughts yet he will not become a Shakespeare. His death is hovering over him.
The second quatrain highlights his fear of not getting enough time to enjoy the physical beauty of Nature. He says that heaven is boasting of its beauty with its starry nights and shadowy clouds. Unfortunately, his anticipated death will deprive him of relishing these beautiful scenes.
The third quatrain expresses his fear of not getting a chance to develop a love-affair. His erstwhile beloved, Fanny Brawn, has already deserted him. Now he fears that he will never become an inamorato of anybody. Thus he says in the last couplet, "On the shore of the wide world I stand alone".
QUESTION NO. 21
Firstly, the sea is a personified character. Some fishermen deem it el mar i.e., male while the others take it la mar i.e., female. Santiago considers it female because of its fertility, and because it embodies both kindness and cruelty. Thus the sea is a human being symbolically.
Secondly, the colour of sea water is mostly blue which is a symbol of life. Moreover, Santiago's eyes are of the same colour as that of the sea. And his eyes are the most living part of his body. This simile again proves the sea as a living being.
Thirdly, the sea is the great mother of all living things. Almost all religions and sciences believe that life emerged from water. These also agree that living things are only born from living ones. Looked at in this perspective, the sea is definitely the "Living Infinite".
Firstly, Manolin provides Santiago food and beverage. The poor Santiago has been failing to catch a fish for eighty-four consecutive days. In this predicament, Manolin saves him from starving to death by serving him with beer, coffee and sumptuous suppers. He says to Santiago, "You'll not fish without eating while I'm alive".
Secondly, Manolin gives Santiago company. Santiago's wife has died. He has neither children nor any relatives. Manolin is his last and deepest human relationship. Manolin's company keeps him emotionally sound and psychologically balanced. Without his company, Santiago's survival would have been impossible.
Thirdly, Manolin renders Santiago help and assistance. He is not only Santiago's apprentice but also acts as his son. He helps him with his gear. He supplies him with fresh baits. He brings ointment for his lacerated hands. In fact, it is Manolin's help which ensures that Santiago will live on.
Firstly, both are born fishermen. DiMaggio's father, Giuseppe, was a fisherman. Santiago muses three times throughout the novella that the great DiMaggio's father was a fisherman. And Santiago is a veteran fisherman of Cojimar in Cuba. Thus both have same backgrounds.
Secondly, both are champions. DiMaggio, otherwise know as the "Yankee Clipper", is a baseball champion. Santiago calls him a player who "makes the difference". And Santiago is a hand-wrestling champion. He earned the title of "El Campeon" by defeating a Negro from Cienfuegos.
Thirdly, both are handicapped. Santiago compares his left cramped hand with the bone spur of DiMaggio. He believes that if DiMaggio can play baseball with his osteotype, he can also continue his struggle against the giant Marlin with his cramped hand.
Evening advanced so the oil lamps were lit. The bettors became hopeless so they started leaving and entering the room. In this situation, the wrestlers strained themselves so severely that blood began to ooze from under their fingernails. Further four hours could make no decision but a new referee.
At night, the Negro was entertained with rum and cigarettes so he put a tremendous torque and inclined Santiago's arm down three inches off the balance. However, Santiago raised his hand up to dead even again. All the night, the odds and the referees kept on changing but the match remained a tie.
The sun of the Monday morning rose. The bettors wanted the match to be declared a draw because they were to go to their jobs. Santiago felt it, so he applied his whole might and forced the Negro's hand down and down until it kissed the table. At last, Santiago had won the match and earned the title of "El Campeon".
Firstly, every day is a different day. It has a different name, different date and different possibilities. When Manolin reminds Santiago of his an erstwhile unlucky spell of 87 days, Santiago says, "It could not happen twice". Thus no day is like bygone days. It is absolutely new.
Secondly, every day is a new beginning. A man is reborn every day. It is the first day of the rest of his life. It is a clean slate. If man performs bad of good deeds the day before, the canvas is wiped clean as soon as he wakes up the next morning.
Thirdly, every day is a new opportunity. The chief beauty about a new day is that no man can consume it in advance. Every new day lies ready for him, as perfect, as unspoiled. So man should be optimistic about every day. In fact, Santiago rightly hopes that 85th will be a lucky day.
Firstly, destruction connotes "physical damage". Santiago's lacerated hands, fatigued body and 'something broken' in his chest show that he is destroyed. However, defeat implies "spiritual damage". Santiago's refusal to quit prove that he has a gallant spirit that can never be defeated.
Secondly, destruction leads to "failure". The sharks destroy the marlin and Santiago fails to fetch the whole on the shore. However, failure is a temporary detour or delay, not defeat. No doubt, Santiago has failed but is undefeated because he has eluded defeat by hope, pride and faith.
Thirdly, man's attitude determines a fact. "And pain does not matter to a man" is a fact for Santiago because he thinks it so. Similarly, "A man can be destroyed but not defeated" is a fact, a principle, a philosophy and a morality for all those people who think it so.
Firstly, he is adept in baiting. When he ventures his odyssey, he carries four kind of bait-fish; sardines, tunas, blue runners and yellow jacks. He hooks them so skillfully that each part of the hook becomes yummy for preys. Moreover, he throws the baits at four different depths very skillfully.
Secondly, he is a sea biologist. He possesses sound information about sea fish, turtles, birds and plants. He identifies the names of all the fish he encounters. He even knows their behaviour, sex, taste and nourishment. He also knows that different fish swim at different levels.
Thirdly, his accurate guesses are another proof of his prowess. He rightly predicts that the fish nibbling his hook at one hundred fathoms down is a "male marlin". He accurately estimates that the marlin is 18 feet long and 1500 pounds heavy without any measuring device. In fact, only a skillful fisherman can do so.
Firstly, Santiago believes in numerology. He thinks "Eighty-five is a lucky number". He has been failing to catch a fish for eighty-four consecutive days. Now he hopes to catch a big fish on the eighty-fifth day. Moreover, he wants to buy a terminal of the lottery with an eighty-five. This belief is purely superstitious.
Secondly, he believes in shibboleths i.e., common sayings. At noon of the first day on the sea, a fish nibbles the bait of one hundred fathoms deep line time and again. Santiago hopes that it will swallow the bait but he does not say because he deems, "If you say something good, it might not happen". This notion is also superstitious.
Thirdly, he trusts in luck. At the start of th novella, Manolin wishes to go with him for fishing but he says, "No, Yor're with a lucky boat. Stay with them". At the end of the novella, the boy again wants to go with him but he says, "No, I am not lucky. I am not lucky anymore". Thus his belief in luck proves him a superstitious man.